Database management is a system for managing information that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and application programs, modifying it as necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being damaged by unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a wide range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that store data according to a certain arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and permits cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of attributes, or fields, that contain information about data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most used database type in the present This design is based upon normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to update different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can accommodate various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues including the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the different data models) and can also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data to improve performance.